A journal following the history, design, construction and operation of Bernard Kempinski's O Scale model railroad depicting the U. S. Military Railroad (USMRR) Aquia-Falmouth line in 1863, and other model railroad projects.
©Bernard Kempinski All text and images, except as noted, on this blog are copyrighted by the author and may not be used without permission.

May 3, 2021

Can You Say Wind Chill?

I am back from a weekend trip to Pennsylvania to attend the Columbia Railroad Day. My itinerary took me to Gettysburg, PA on Friday and to Columbia, PA on Saturday.

View of the Round Tops from the jump off position of Longstreet's Corps

The weather was warm and sunny when I left Virginia. When I arrived in Gettysburg, the skys were clear, but the wind was steady with gusts up to 60 mph and the temperature in  the 50s. My plan was to ride my bike around the part of the battlefield that saw action on the second day of the battle.  So I parked on  the saddle between the Round Tops. From there I rode my bike to the top of Little Round Top, then down the hill and west to the Peach Orchid and back. I was clever enough to plan my route so that my return climb to Little Round Top had a tail wind, but the otherwise the wind was brutal. Unfortunately, I did not pack clothes that were warm enough, so I was thoroughly chilled, despite the climb. I then jumped in my car and decided to tour the rest of the battlefield by auto.  

I wanted to stop at the Gettysburg Train station, but those plans were literally  short circuited.  I was driving north on Stratton Street near the railroad tracks, when I heard a strange humming noise. I thought something was wrong with my car. I looked up and noticed that there was a large orange-blue flame above my car. I drove forward another 100 yards and I saw it again in my rear view mirror. So I stopped and got out and it happened a third time. A pedestrian said to me that a tree was swaying into a power line. Apparently the last time the tree swayed  it caused the power line to snap, or a breaker to trigger, so the flames stopped. I did not get closer to investigate. Instead, I decided to head to the north side of the battlefield to check out the scenes of the first day of combat.   

View from Oak Hill to the east where XI Corps was
pushed back by Ewell's attack on the first day
 The wind was actually getting stronger as I toured the northern sectors and clouds were gathering. I managed to complete most of the auto tour and decided to call it a day. I heard later that the wind caused a tree to fall on a car and a porta-potty at the battlefield. A man was trapped in the potty had to be rescued by the local fire department. 

I arrived in Columbia, PA and met some of the hosts for the model railroad weekend. 

The next morning, the weather was again sunny, but with temperatures in the 40s and wind gusting to 30-50MPH. The meet was held at the Columbia Pavilion, which is an outdoor covered deck.  The cold weather resulted in light attendance at the meet. Nonetheless, Thom Radice from the ACWRRHS was there as well as several of my friends from Facebook that lived in the local area. It was fun to meet with them. 

Despite the small crowd, there were several vendors and exhibitors present as well as a reenactment unit. 

A female re-eanctor was making samples of 1860 cuisine including some hard tack she had prepared in advance. I got to taste some and it was pretty good and not that difficult to chew. She said the cracker would get harder after a few days of drying out. So I brought some home to test out. She also made some tasty corn meal mushies and some kind of stew that I did not get to sample.

The 45th PA Infantry reenactment unit was on hand with an encampment and display of civil war era weapons. Some of the weapons were originals. They even let spectators handle them.  I got to handle an original Sharpe's rifle and a smoothbore musket.

Scott Mingus lead off the presentations with an interesting discussion of the Gettysburg RR.  I also purchased his latest book on the Cumberland Valley RR in the civil war. 

Larry Hoover shows a local police
officer a civil war era weapon
Then Joel Moore showed photos of his highly detailed HO layout and described how he used his railroad as a setting for some novels he wrote.

I presented two talks. The first was an Introduction to Civil War Railroads, a talk I have done many times before. Alas, I was so cold during the talk that I was shivering as I spoke.  That made for an unpleasant experience for me and many of the folks watching expressed concern afterwards. I should have worn my civil war uniform as it would have been perfect for the weather instead the light cotton clothes I had with me. 

Luckily, the weather warmed up a bit and the wind died down for my second talk on my Aquia Line Model Railroad. That talk went off quite well.

The last talk was by Chris Vera on how the people of Columbia were involved in the underground railroad.
In between the talks, my host Barry Schmit, took me to see the Columbia Model Railroad Club layouts.  They have large HO and O scale layouts in a former church which is now the Columbia Historical Society building.

I returned home safely Saturday night. It was a fun weekend, despite the cold and windy weather. 

April 25, 2021

Florida - Part 3 Model Trains and Planes


Wrapping up my documentation of our trip to Florida, I will mention our visit to Rick Bellanger's N Scale layout and the Titusville Model Railroad Club.

Rick Bellanger is an accomplish model builder and long term N Scale model railroader. His house is practically a museum filled with well built models of ships, planes and armor as well as a nicely built, double deck N scale layout. 

Rick and his layout
Rick is originally from Florida but lived in LA for many years. He was a member of the Belmont Shores N Scale and the Tehachapi HO scale model railroad clubs.  

His current freelanced layout features the UP and Sante Fe railroads.  It is well built and features many illuminated buildings.  Rick said he is interested in selling his N scale layout and equipment, preferably in one transaction. If you are interested, let me know and I can put you in contact with him.  He has a lot of rolling stock and many structures. 

Engine terminal on Rick's layout

After visiting Rick's layout, we stopped by the Titusville Model Railroad Club layout. We got to met some of the members and had a chance to look at their layouts. They have three layouts, the O gauge 3-rail and N scale layouts are finished. They are in the process of rebuilding the HO scale layout. It is coming along nicely. Alas, I forgot to take pictures at the club.  

The guys at the model railroad  club suggested we check out American Aero Services, New Smyrna Beach, FL. So we did that the next day after a round of golf at nearby Venetian Bay (note, I was the caddy, my back was still not healed enough for golf).

American Aero Services is a restoration and maintenance facility that specializes in serving the War-Bird community. They restore aircraft, military vehicles, armor, missiles and rockets. They do complete restorations, repairs, maintenance and annual inspections. They also have a museum. Amazingly, they let visitors wander around their two hangers to see what they are doing.  

The tank is a former Soviet T-55 that they are visually modifying to look like a WW2 Tiger.

This B-17 is being refitted for flying service.

You don't see this too often

On my last day in Florida I took a long walk on the beach and saw a large, dead  turtle washed up on the sand. This is the second time I have seem a large turtle dead on the beach. The first one was larger than this one, but was in an advanced state of decay. This time the turtle appeared in fairly good condition, so it was not dead for long. However, it appeared to have three wounds on the left side that were probably strikes from a propeller. One of the wounds was pretty deep and looked like it was oozing. It may have been a fatal blow. The state of Florida tracks these turtles, so I reported it to the local lifeguard and he called it in. I am not sure how the orange markings got on the turtle. 

That  wraps up our trip to Florida. It was a fun week despite the issues with my back and the unfortunate turtle.

We are back in Virginia. My back is getting better and more projects are getting added to the do list. 

April 23, 2021

2021 Columbia PA Railroad Day

Next weekend will be an interesting day for people interested in civil war railroads.  

The  2021 Columbia Pennsylvannia Railroad Day program is scheduled for May 1 after cancelling last year's event due to the COVID-19 pandemic. They will be using the new Columbia Crossing River Tails Visitor Center for facility for their Civil War Railroading theme presentations. It is located along the Susquehanna River at 41 Walnut Street, and offers full audio/visual support and extensive seating both inside and out.

Columbia, PA is located east of York near the former Columbia-Wrightsville Bridge, which the scene of an important skirmish and bridge burning during the Gettysburg campaign. The burning of that bridge pretty much ended the rebels plans to cross the Susquehanna River during the invasion of Pennsylvannia. 

I plan to drive up the day before and revisit Gettysburg on the way. In addition to my talk, I will have some of my ACW era models on display.

The schedule of events is as follows

09:00AM - 09:30AM: Civil War Railroad Day Opening Remarks.

10:00AM - 10:45AM: Civil War Railroad to Gettysburg, Scott Mingus.

11:15AM - 12:00PM: Civil War Canals and Railroads, Doug Bosley.

12:30PM - 01:15PM: Railroads During the Civil War, Bernard Kempinski.

01:45PM - 02:30PM: Civil War Aquia Line Model Railroad, Bernard Kempinski.

03:15PM - 04:00PM: Rails to Freedom in Columbia, Chris Vera.

Other planned activities during the all-day program include four Civil War Encampments on the Columbia Crossing grounds. The Columbia Historic Preservation Society will host three all-day model railroad activities: their large HO Columbia and Susquehanna Model Railroad Club that depicts Columbia in the early 1950's, the O-Scale Lower Susquehanna Model Railroaders modular layout, and several NMRA Susquehanna Division model railroad displays. Lastly the new owners of Rail Mechanical Services may allow tours, displays, and speeder activities at their site.

It should be an interesting day. 

April 17, 2021

Florida - Part 2 Cape Canaveral

On Monday my brother and I had an appointment with Bill Paul, a curator of the USAF Space and Missile Museum. Bill and my brother are in the same model club, so we were able to set up a visit to the USAF Cape Canaveral Museum archives even though they are closed on Mondays and are very limited in visiting due to security and COVID concerns. My purpose in visiting the archives was to find plans for the mobile launch pad, also called the transporter, used at Launch Complex 41 (LC 41) to move the Titan Missiles from assembly buildings to the launch pad.  I want to build a model of this facility as I think the juxtaposition of rockets and trains is really cool. 

Current mobile launch pad

If you have my book, "45 Track Plans" you would know that I wrote about how United Launch Alliance (ULA) currently uses trackmobiles to push their mobile launch pad at LC41.  See photo at left. 

Before ULA took over operation of LC41, the USAF used LC40 and LC41 to launch numerous Titan III and Titan IV missiles.  In the Titan era, they also used a mobile launch pad but it was pushed by SW-8 locomotives.

The locomotives are actually US Army Korean war veterans that the USAF employed here. One of them is on display at their museum at Cape Canaveral (see photo above). The arm on the engineer side of the loco allows the operators to connect two locos so they can be operated at the same time, i.e. to MU them. 

Alas, we were unable to  plans for the mobile launch pad. We did find some photos that would help. 

But the best photo I have is from a friend's collection.  You can't see how the boom is deployed in this photo. Note the charring on the tower from exhaust from previous missile launches.

This is an example of the scene I want to model. Titan III on the transporter (aka Mobile launch pad)

This photo shows the boom extended.  Anway, I am hesitant to proceed without a better set of plans. I may be able to draw some based on photos, but for now this project has moved down on the "do-list."


One of the artifacts on display at the archives was this Atlas Mercury missile signed by the Mercury astronauts. I got to handle it too! It needs some repairs, but to say it is very valuable is an understatement. 

After looking through the archives, we made a visit to the USAF Museum Annex where we got to see the missiles on display in their protected environment. The missiles look great and being protected from the sun and salt air will certainly help preserve them.  

We also got a peek at Blue Origin's launch pad and the Cape Canaveral light house. 

Some of the missiles on display at the Missile Annex

One of the unusual missiles on display at the museum 

As we were driving around the base, we had to yield to a SpaceX missile transporter that was heading to the port to retrieve a used booster. As an added treat, I got to see that SpaceX booster being recovered from their barge at the Port of Canaveral. I was lucky a couple years ago to see a SpaceX launch from my in-laws' condo in Daytona Beach Shores.  See video below.

Stay tuned for part 3 of our amazing week in Florida. 

SpaceX Booster being recovered at Port Canaveral Hmm, I do have an HO scale model of that crane.....the mind boggles.

April 16, 2021

Florida Trip Part 1 - Jaxcon 2021

We are back from Florida visiting our family. We had a fun and productive trip. My back precluded my playing golf, so I was the caddy. Walks on the beach and stretching did help and I am feeling better.

My two models on display and their medals
 The first model related event was Jaxcon 2021. That IPMS meet was held in a very large auditorium of a local church. Everyone was really friendly and happy to discuss their models.  About 250 very nice models in several categories were on display. That was about half the normal number.  After lunch, the organizers went about judging the models for medals and best of categories. They awarded bronze, silver and gold.  This meet does judging a little different from others in that they assess models against a standard, but what the standard was I do not know.  Later I learned  that they assessed that any model built out of the box, i.e. stock, could not qualify for a gold.  

I had two models on display, the 1/32 Land Merrimack and the 1/56th Battle for Aachen. The Land Merrimack got a gold and the Battle for Aachen got a silver. I suspected that would be the case as many IPMS modelers are accustomed to super-detailed, larger scale models and smaller scale models have to be really outstanding to attract attention.  The fact that the Land Merrimack is totally scratch built, and has working brakes and an operable cannon also attracts attention.

My brother's display of 1/72nd scale armor models
was awarded a Gold Medal.
My brother had several models on display and he received a gold, 4 silvers and a bronze. Given that he took up modeling about 18 months ago that is quite an achievement. 

In general I am not that enamored with model contests. So I liked the idea of awarding medals according to a standard. But there were some extremely well built models that did not receive medals. From what I could tell, if a model was not weathered, it did not receive an award, no matter how finely built except for model show cars, like hot rods.
These ship models were well built but did not get medals

Possibly the best paint I have ever 
seen on a model
Speaking of hot rods, there was one model hot rod that had the most impressive paint job I have ever seen on a model car. The builder was a retired auto body painter and he did an amazing job. He received a gold medal and best car model award.

There were a few of the large scale armor models on display. These models out of the box are so well detailed it is amazing.  The photo below shows a 1/35 and a 1/16 scale Abrams tank adjacent to each other.

More about our Florida adventures in a later posts.

April 7, 2021

Back Door to the City of Charlemagne - Battle for Aachen

We are planning on visiting family in Florida next week. My brother convinced me to bring some of my models to display at the JAXCON, the 2021 IPMS meet for northeastern Florida. I was working on a diorama of a scene in WW2, so I decided to finish it to display at the meet.

This diorama is based on a series of 3 photos that shows US tanks from the 745th Independent Tank Battalion and soldiers from E Company, 2 Bn -26th Infantry Regiment, of the 1st Infantry Division (The Big Red One)  at the Rothe Erde train station. Rothe Erde is an industrial suburb east of Aachen. 

The following excerpt from CSI Battlebook 13-C, The Battle of Aachen, Ft Leavenworth, KS describes the scene in the diorama. 

This photo was inspiration for the diorama

The 2nd Battalion was finally ready to enter the city proper. The railroad tracks marked the southern limits of the city and would be considered the line of departure (LD). The LD embankment was about 30 feet high on the west side of the Battalion sector and sloped to about 15 feet on the east side.

The banks were fairly steep and would impose an obstacle to vehicles. There was one underpass in the Battalion zone, but this was blocked (note a down bridge and other obstacles). The plan called for the 2nd Battalion to drive to the north and the 3rd Battalion to attack west with the two meeting on the north-east border of the city. The 2nd Battalion had all three rifle companies on line; "F", 'E", "G", in order, east to west. 

The blown railway bridge over Adalbertsteinweg  and other obstacles blocked movement across the railroad line. The Rothe Erde station is just to the left of this image that looks west toward Aachen.


"The problem at that time was how to get the tanks, tank destroyers, and AT guns over the obstacle before the Germans could react. The tank platoon leader made a recon and finally found a place where several tanks could be taken  over. The rest would have to wait until the underpass had been cleared. In the "Capture of Aachen", LTC Daniel relates the detailed planning for the attack. "use heavy air and artillery in early morning. Air will bomb anywhere in city except within 500 yards of the railroad tracks in 2nd Battalion zone. Artillery will stand on line 100 yards from the railroad tracks with light guns. Mediums and heavies will cover from 300-500 yards from the tracks. 2nd Battalion mortars will work the area from the tracks to the artillery line 100 yards beyond. Jump-off time was 0930, 13 October. All artillery would lift 200 yards and air will stop except for targets marked by colored smoke. Main problem was to get infantry across exposed railroad embankment. Each  infantryman was given a hand grenade to throw over the embankment at 0930".

The main attack kicked off and E and F Companies scrambled over the embankment firing every weapon they had. The Germans were completely caught by surprise. They had expected the main attack to come from the south and not the east. Thus, the Americans advanced several blocks before encountering any resistance. As soon as the Germans got partially reorganized, they put up a fierce resistance and fought for every rubble heap.

Every position had to be stormed by the Americans using grenades, bayonets, rifle butts, and flame throwers. F Company had been instructed to stay clear of the built-up area and head north until they reached their zone and then turn west. E Company was to clear all the buildings east of Adalbertsteinweg and north of the tracks. F Company found quite a built-up area in their zone northeast of the cemetery, and was slowed down considerably. By mid-afternoon, E and F companies still had not reached the line that was to allow G Company to be committed. An underpass was created by blowing out part of the walls of the station just to the west of the original underpass. Tanks were then driven through and by nightfall, 13 October, all the fighting vehicles were into the city. G company was also moved from its position along the embankment, so that all units were now in the city and ready for another push on 14 October. It had been determined by this time that daylight operations were absolutely necessary in street fighting to take full advantage of firepower and avoid loss of command and control. 

The model is in 1/56th scale, which is also called 28mm scale. The tank and figures are by Rubicon, who make some of the nicest models in this scale. Note, this is mostly a wargaming scale, so many of the models have coarse, over-scale features to survive rough handling in miniature games. But Rubicon figures and models are very finely made.

I scratch built the station with laser cut parts using photos and measurements of the actual station. I was fortunate that Joseph Franke is currently a graduate student in Aachen and he kindly measured the existing station and got dirt samples for me. The station underwent extensive renovation several times after the war  and many of the  details are now different compared to WW2. So I had to rely on the 3 prototype photos for many of the details. 

It is a railway station so tracks are de rigeur. I hand laid these to 1/56th scale. 
I tried using bolts, but switched to spikes as the bolts were not working for me.

March 26, 2021

Why do you think we find scaled down miniature things so appealing?

Adam Savage, former co-host of "Mythbusters" and now host of "Tested" on Youtube, was recently asked the question, "Why do you think we find scaled down miniature things so appealing?" You can watch the first 2 minutes of the video below to see his answer. Spoiler alert, he really doesn't answer the question. So I ask the same questions here. Why do we find scaled down miniatures so appealing?

In my case, I have enjoyed model building as long as I can remember. I recall the GM Exhibit at the New York Worlds Fair had a big effect on me.  But I don't know if that was result of my existing interest in modeling or if it inspired it. My dad built a train layout for my brother and I as kids, but I never was that interested in trains very much after that. I was more into cars, armor, ships, rockets, and airplanes as a young teen.  It was only after my son was born that I became interested in model railroads. 

For me the fun is in the creating. Once I have the object, it's time to move on and build another.  That is why I often sell, dismantle, discard or give away many of my completed projects. 

Why miniatures versus full scale objects? That I don't know for sure. Perhaps because it's easier to work on a wider variety of things. 

Miniatures have been with us for a long time. In the Getty Villa Museum in Malibu, CA I saw an exhibit of miniature figurines that Roman citizens collected. So the hobby is over 2000 years old. 

But, now I have come to realize that model railroading is a fantastic, if not the best, miniatures hobby. I find the multifaceted nature of it most rewarding. Historical research, carpentry, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, electronics including the software side of computers, artist work, photography, and videography are all aspects that I find interesting and rewarding.  Plus, a model railroad is not a static thing. It actually comes life when the trains move and even more when the crews operate it.

Modeling a military railroad combines several of my interests such as military history, figure modeling, warships, on top of the railroad subjects. That makes it more satisfying for me. Civil war era railroad modeling has the advantage of smaller rolling stock, so the space claim is less for any given scale subject.

The social side of model railroading is also rewarding. My wife is no longer amazed that no matter what town we visit, there is usually a model railroader I can visit and go in their house. My layout visit log says I have visited over 300 different layouts since 1992. How many  hobbies have that level of personal interaction?

So what do you think? 

March 25, 2021


I injured my back somehow last week. That has curtailed my layout work, but I was able to catch up on some writing and design projects. CHAIR-BORNE!  (for you former paratroopers.) 

I wrote three articles that seem to have been accepted by the editors. So hopefully we will see them pop up in the magazines at some point. One of the articles was for a new magazine for me, a non-model railroad magazine.There is quite along lead time from article submission to publishing, so it could be a while.

I did shoot some new photos for the articles including this shot of Battery Schaefer. Prior to the layout expansion, this shot was obscured by trees. Now, the trees are no longer in the way and we can get a look at a train coming north past the battery.

Another project I could do from my chair-borne position was a track plan design. A model railroad club in Ogden, Utah obtained access to a store for a semi-permanent layout. Some of their members asked me if I could help with the layout design. They wanted something that featured scenes from the local area, had crowd pleasing features, but also allowed interesting operation. They had sketched out a basic foot print for the layout, so all I had to do was fill it in.

I have rail fanned this area several times so I was familiar with some of the signature scenes. On one trip we caught a UP steam train heading up Weber Canyon. I did a short youtube video on that along with some help from Brian and Jake.

I came up with a rough draft plan. We will see how it evolves and if they use any of my ideas.

March 19, 2021

It's back!

I am continue to lay the track at Falmouth. Tonight I installed most of the ties. 
I made a few adjustments to the track plan, including bringing back the infamous double slip stub switch.  Why? My operators just love it!  Plus, it actually will save some work as one switch stand can serve two turnouts.  It's odd to realize that there will only be 5 turnouts at Falmouth plus the turntable. 

The arrival track is long enough to comfortably hold a 10-car train and a engine. Now, to lay the rail and install the spikes. I hope I have enough.


March 18, 2021

Track laying started

 I did a short video update on the start of laying track on Phase II of the layout expansion. I posted it below. 

March 13, 2021

Time to cut ties


No, I am not leaving, quitting my blog, or getting divorced. I mean this literally, it is time to cut the ties I will need for the new track.

It took about 2 hours of laser time and 7 sheets of 4 inches by 24 inches by 1/8th inch basswood to make a decent pile of ties. I like to use the laser to cut the ties with slight wobbly edges so they look like they were hand hewn. But I do not make the tops and bottoms rough in the interest of smooth and reliable running.

I stained the ties in batches with each batch using a slightly different color stain. I use alcohol and acrylic stain by Liquitex or artists inks.

Next is to start laying track. I think I  will start at the south end of the bridge so I can utilize the flex track I have already installed. I will remove the flex track when I build the bridge.

"If I had a dollar bill for every tie I cut, 

there'd be  a mountain of money piled up to my gut," with apologies to Annie 

Benchwork Completed for Layout Expansion

 I completed the benchwork for the layout expansion this evening. I thought I would do a video update so as to better show the extent of the completed section.

After I filmed the video, I put some cars and structures on the benchwork to get a feel for how the scene will look.

March 2, 2021

Floating Coves and Backdrops

I finished constructing and painting the sky and clouds on the backdrops for the Falmouth extension. A few friends requested that I do a video of how I paint my backdrops. So I put one together and uploaded it to YouTube. 


In the video I explain the concept of the floating cove to improve the appearance of the corners. This technique has worked well for me. I have not had any cracks develop in my backdrops over the 13 years the layout has been up.

The video was getting a little long, so I edited out the discussion of why I did not cove the corner by the planned balloon camp.  There is a window adjacent to that corner. This window is a possible fire escape for the room. So I did not want to block it with a section of masonite I would use for a cove. Solutions that involved a partial cove just didn't look right. So I plan to rely on the Lowe's observation balloon to help hide the uncoved corner.

I have not yet painted the ground portion of the backdrop as that will depend on how I install the 3D terrain. 

February 27, 2021

LDSIG Panel Discussion - What would you do differently?

 I was a panelist on a Layout Design Special Interest Group (LDSIG) on the subject of "What would you do differently." There were six of us on the panel. We each had a chance to do a short presentation on our layouts with respect to the above question. 

I structured my brief presentation as a summary of how I got where I am and what I would do differently.  The image at the left, with apologies to the Talking Heads, is a rough outline that I followed. 

I described the layout space I had available, the layouts I tried to build before the Aquia line, and how the Aquia Line evolved and grew. 

I presented a short list of things I would do differently if I was starting over, all from a layout design perspective. I post the list here without elaboration. 

  • Build an integrated design. The iterative/phased process resulted in sub-optimal design
  • 36” Minimum radius with 30” only in alcove
  • Longer sidings and longer trains
  • Prototype length bridge at Potomac Creek
  • Track elevation in accordance with prototype terrain
  • Master switch for the layout lighting
  • Buy a different house

Finally, I showed a quick sketch track plan of how I would redesign the Aquia Line RR if I were starting from scratch. This was the LDSIG after all. The main difference is that I flipped the railroad. Aquia Landing is in the crew lounge while Falmouth passes the current location of Burnside's Wharf and extends into the home office. Putting Aquia Landing in the crew lounge area allows the track to climb after it leaves the river, just as it does in the prototype. 

In this redesign, about 25% of the railroad would require only minor changes from the current plan, but the rest would have extensive rebuilding. This railroad satisfies all the items I listed above.  Will I do this? I highly doubt it. But it was a fun exercise.

The LDSIG will make the recorded talk available on line for viewing. I will update this blog with the link when it is available. 

Meanwhile, the spackle is drying on the new coved corner by Stares Tunnel. I should be able to start painting backdrops tomorrow.